• SharkieSophie

Diving for Dollars

Updated: Apr 27, 2021

More people are now able to travel than ever before and the general public are becoming increasingly interested in seeking out natural environments to escape their radically urbanised world. Therefore, all over the world ecotourism has becoming increasingly popular over recent decades. Shark diving, including snorkelling, SCUBA diving and cage-diving with sharks, has exploded in popularity especially (Gallagher & Hammerschlag, 2011).

Diving with reef sharks (Image Source: www.divemagazine.co.uk)

Ecotourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and new diving sites are being established regularly. It has been estimated that the annual increase in tourists visiting shark diving sites has increased by 30% over the last 20 years. By 2013 at least 590,000 people went diving with sharks annually and it is likely that this figure is much higher today. Shark ecotourism (including shark watching, snorkelling, diving, cage-diving) is available through at least 380 tour operators, in 85 different countries around the world (Gallagher & Hammerschlag, 2011, Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013).

Locations of shark diving operators (Gallagher & Hammerschlag 2011)

The ecotourism industry generates at least $314million USD globally every year! It is predicted that the industry will generate as much as $785 million USD annually within the next 20 years! More than 10,000 people are employed directly by shark ecotourism companies around the world and many more are employed by businesses which indirectly benefit from the presence of ecotourism in the local area, such as hotels, restaurants and shops. Shark tourism supports local communities and also generates significant capitol at the national level (Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013).

Global expenditures of shark divers (Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013)

As ecotourism is so economically valuable it has significant power to convert the value of sharks... If local people are able to support themselves through employment in ecotourism, rather than by fishing and selling sharks, they will start to value live sharks. This can switch the value of sharks from en extractive- to a non-consumptive resource (Cisneros-Montemayor et al., 2013).

In South Africa, several different companies offer expeditions to cage-dive with great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias). It has been estimated that

$6,074,000 USD were spent at these sites in 2011, compared to just $478,000 USD revenue from sharks which were landed in fisheries. Similarly, in French Polynesia, individual sharks have been valued at $1,200 USD per kg as an ecotourism resource, compared to only $1.5 USD when fished for meat! This could mean live sharks are far more valuable to local people than the money they can earn from fishing (Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013).

Value of sharks for tourism vs. fishing (Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013)

Therefore, when local communities are involved in ecotourism they become agents of conservation. Many shark species, especially large, charismatic sharks targeted by ecotourism are endangered globally. Switching from fishing to ecotourism will allow shark populations in the area to begin to recover. Whatsmore, if local people rely upon sharks for their livelihood, they are much more likely to support conservation strategies (Gallagher & Hammerschlag, 2011, Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013).

Ecotourism can also have conservation effects beyond the sharks themselves! It has been found that well managed ecotourism sites have improved ecosystem health and structure. This can mean that other species are given protection by default and also provide protection to extended areas of habitat which are used by the diving operators. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have even sprung up around ecotourism locations to protect the industry from fisheries (Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013).

Cage-diving with great white sharks in South Africa

Shark watching can also be critical for generating public support for conservation. Shark watching can lead to increased awareness and support for conservation because seeing sharks in their natural habitat and offering educational experiences can alter people's perceptions about sharks. This can increase the public understanding of global shark declines and make people feel that sharks deserve protection (Cisneros-Montemayor et al, 2013).

Ecotourism is an excellent way to generate public interest in sharks and to inadvertently protect these animals. If you know someone who does not care about shark conservation or ethics, you can cite the economic benefits for local communities to convince them that shark-diving ecotourism is a valuable industry.

SCUBA diving with tiger sharks in the Bahamas (image Source: www.padi.com)

If you wold like to try shark-diving, always check your tour operators is reputable and has an excellent health and safety policy. PADI (the world’s leading scuba diver training organization) lists its top 10 shark diving sites to be:

  • Bajo Alcyone – Cocos Island, Costa Rica

  • Monad Shoal – Malapascua, Philippines

  • Gordon Rocks – Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

  • Tiger Beach – Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas

  • Pipín – Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

  • Isla Guadalupe, Mexico

  • Shark Dive – Beqa Lagoon, Fiji

  • Gladden Spit Whale Shark Dive – Placencia, Belize

  • The Canyons – Rangiroa, French Polynesia

  • Pyramid Rock – False Bay, South Africa

If you would like to learn more about how shark diving can impact on the animals, you can read more of my Ecotourism articles and to learn more about the benefits of shark diving, you can check out From Tourism to Conservation.


Cisneros-Montemayor A, Barnes-Mauthe M, Al-Abdulrazzak D, Navarro-Holm E & Sumaila U (2013). Global economic value of shark ecotourism: implications for conservation. Oryx, 47:03, 381-388. Access online.

Gallagher AJ & Hammerschlag N (2011). Global shark currency: the distribution, frequency, and economic value of shark ecotourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 8, 797-812. Access online.

By Sophie A. Maycock for SharkSpeak.

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