• SharkieSophie

Critically Endangered Fins

Updated: Apr 27

Shark fin soup has received a lot of scorn in recent years and rightly so! The industry is responsible for an enormous proportion of the sharks which are killed globally each year, and has been implicated as a significant diver of population declines of several endangered shark species. Around the world, there are multiple NGOs, charities, animal rights groups, conservationists and scientific research groups working tirelessly to end shark finning completely. They are supported by many people in China, who refuse to eat the delicacy, and demand it be removed from menus at state dinners and other important events. But has all this amazing work meant that endangered sharks are now protected from finning? Are fins off the market in China?


Image credit: Sam Tsang, Source: www.scmp.com

There are some potentially sustainable shark fisheries in the world, but there are many species of sharks which are at serous risk of extinction and should not be fished at all. The problem is it can be difficult to determine where a fin has come from and what species it is when it is on sale in a market. After fins are removed from the shark and have been dried or treated in some other way, it can be very challenging to visually identify what species of shark it was from.


However, DNA analysis is being deployed more and more regularly in recent years, as a tool to tackle this problem. "DNA barcoding" involves sequencing a portion of the genome of some tissue, to compare the code against a database of known species. As genetic material is present in every single cell, this method can be used on many kinds of tissue, including fins. Therefore, if scientists take a sample of fins for sale, they can determine very accurately what species of shark it is and whether sale of that product is restricted or illegal.


Shark fins are still on sale in many places around the world, where shark fin soup is served in restaurants, but the two largest shark fin consumption centres in the world are found in Guangzhou, mainland China and Hong Kong.


So recently a team of researchers subjected fins from these markets to DNA barcoding, to determine whether the fins belonged to endangered species. They found quite shocking results...


"More than a third of the traded species

exhibit high extinction risk"

- Cardeñosa et al, 2020


(Cardeñosa et al, 2020)

Of a total of 43 species found in Guangzhou and 44 in Hong Kong a disgraceful proportion were endangered species; 37.9% of species from Hong Kong markets and 41.8% from Guangzhou are classified as 'vulnerable', 'endangered' or 'critically endangered' by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This means that these sharks are seriously threatened with extinction. The shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinhcus), which is classified as 'endangered', was found almost twice as commonly at Guangzhou than in Hong Kong (Cardeñosa et al, 2020).

As the composition of the species found were very similar at both sites, it seems that the two markets are connected. This is not surprising, given that the two cities are only 129 km apart and connected by multiple road and railway lines. It seems likely that the fins were imported into China via Hong kong (the common trading port) and moved into mainland China for processing in Guangdong Province, before either being sold there or transported back to Hong Kong (Cardeñosa et al, 2020).


The problem is that listing by the IUCN, does not necessarily mean that legal action can be taken against those trading in endangered species. In this case, it falls to the Convention on the international Trade in Endangered species of Flora and Fauna (commonly known as CITES). This international agreement limits, controls and regulates the international trade of any part of a species listed with CITES. CITES-permits are required to import listed species into China, and are also necessary for transport between Hong Kong and mainland China. According to the Chinese and Hong Kong authorities, they have made significant efforts to bolster their international trade inspections, to stop illegal fins entering the country.


Illegally imported shark fins seized by Chinese authorities in 2020 (Image credit: Nora Tam, Source: www.scmp.com)

What is especially disturbing about these findings though, is that the same research group published a very similar study in China two years ago... and found that CITES-listed endangered shark fins were on sale at that time (Cardeñosa et al, 2018: See SharkSpeak article Protected Sharks on the Menu). This suggests a serious, ongoing problem.


If we are feeling optimistic, maybe we should assume that the stock which was sampled for the previous study had still not been sold by the time the more recent research took place. Maybe some of these restricted items were fished and imported before limitations were put in place. International trade in any body parts of hammerheads (Sphyrna species) and oceanic whitetips (Carcharhinus longimanus) have been restricted by CITES since 2014, and silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) and threshers (Alopias species) were also added in 2016. It may be possible that there is a latency period between the legislation coming into place and the products being sold (Cardeñosa et al, 2020).



However, the scientists stated that stronger law enforcement protocols are required; boosting monitoring both during import and domestic transport, and that surveillance must be put into place to supervise what species are for sale at both locations. They also suggested that similar studies should be undertaken at other significant shark fin markets in Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam, in order to elucidate how endangered species are being transported and traded within the region as a whole (Cardeñosa et al, 2020). This suggests to me, that these researchers were suspicious that CITES-listed endangered species are still being illegally imported into China.


If you would like to support the anti-finning movement, you can follow NGOs, such as Shark Stewards, Stop Finning, or Fin Fighters. You can also keep an eye on Change.org, (type finning in the search bar) where you can sign petitions against shark finning.



References

Cardeñosa D, Fields AT, Babcock EA, Shea SKH, Feldheim KA & Chapman DD (2020). Species composition of the largest shark fin retail-market in mainland China. Scientific Reports, 10, 12914. Access online.


Cardeñosa D, Fields AT Feldheim K, Shea SKH, Babcock EA, Zhang H, Fischer GA & Chapman DD (2018). CITES-listed sharks remain among the top species in the contemporary fin trade. Conservation Letters, 11, e12457. Access online.


By Sophie A. Maycock for SharkSpeak.

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